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Kai Cao, MS, MD, D(ABHI)

Present Title & Affiliation

Primary Appointment

Professor, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology/Lab Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
Laboratory Director, HLA Typing Laboratory, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology/Lab Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
Program Director, HLA Typing Laboratory, Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics Training Program, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology/Lab Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX

Dual/Joint/Adjunct Appointment

Program Director, Joint Methodist Hospital-MD Anderson Cancer Directors Training Program (ASHI), Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology/Lab Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Pathology/Lab Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, HLA Typing Laboratory, Houston, TX

Bio Statement

Part I: After long waiting for chance to college during a period of college-less years while working on farms as a teen, I finally stepped into a medical school following my parent’s insistence, but I loved it except for some scary feelings in anatomy class or in surgical rooms. Part II: Can you imagine what I must have felt when I first landed in a foreign country as a shy, timid, directionless, not-so-independent lady all alone having to leave husband and son behind, being corralled through to the seventh platform in a train station with two big luggage, a few small bags and then finally getting to the exit only to see all these strangers faces? Surprisingly, I survived beyond my expectations! Part III: Following that, coming to the United States was a much easier experience than I expected, although there wasn’t much drama, there were a few fears. But all that was years ago. Part IV: I’m very lucky to have a handsome, loving husband and a wonderful son. I love reading novels, like music & exercises, love movies and dancing, with the Argentine tango being my favorite. I dreamed of playing the piano, but never had the chance or luxury to learn. I love my work! I have been fortunate to have the opportunities to work for a few famous institutions. My family and I moved to warmer temperatures bounding from the east (Maryland) to the west (California) and now, to the south (Texas) where I call home.

Research Interests

HLA polymorphism identification and differentiation methodologies, HLA gene frequencies in different ethnic groups, HLA haplotype frequencies, population distribution.

 

HLA and diseases association studies

 

Identification of new HLA genes (alleles), compile and report rare HLA alleles.

 

Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR): polymorphism, typing methodologies, KIR haplotypes, KIR HLA ligand mismatching and their impact on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

Clinical Interests

HLA matching and graft outcome in hematopoietic stem cell and umbilical cord blood unit transplantation.

 

NK cell benefit from selected donors to patients through graft-versus-leukemia effect in hematopoietic stem cell or umbilical cord blood unit transplantation.

 

Impact of anti-HLA antibodies in patients who need related or unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Anti-HLA antibody monitoring in these patients for guiding patients’ preemptive immune therapeutic treatment, optimal donor selection and monitoring post transplant.  

Education & Training

Degree-Granting Education

1990 China Medical University, Shenyang, P.R., China, MS, Dermatology
1982 China Medical University, Shenyang, P.R., China, MD, Medicine

Postgraduate Training

11/1992-10/1993 Clinical Fellowship, Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, Laboratory of Immunogenetics, National Institute of Cancer Research, Genoa, Italy, G.B. Ferrara, PhD
11/1992-10/1993 Clinical Fellowship, Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics, Department of Immunology, S. Martini Hospital & University, Genoa, Italy, Seregio Barocci, PhD
8/1991-7/1992 Certificate, Italian, Foreign Language Training Center, Beijing Language Institute, Beijing, P. R., China

Board Certifications

9/2010 American Board of Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics D(ABHI)
2008 California Department of Public Health, State of California
2006 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI), Clinical Histocompatibility Specialist (CHS)
2005 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI)

Experience/Service

Other Appointments/Responsibilities

Member, DTRC Committee, American Board of Histocompatibility & Immunogenetics, Houston, TX, 10/2013-present
Associate Director, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 8/2011-1/2012
Member, Bone Marrow Transplant Committee, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 6/2007-1/2012
Member, Transplant Immunotherapy Kidney Patient (TIP) Committee, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 6/2007-1/2012
Member, Kidney Patient Selection Committee, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 6/2007-1/2012
Member, Heart and Lung Transplant Committee, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 6/2007-1/2012
Member, Donor Selection Committee, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 6/2007-1/2012
Assistant Director, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, 6/2007-8/2011
Research Instructor, C.W. Bill Young/Department of Defense Marrow, Donor Program, Naval Medical Research Center/Georgetown University, Rockville, MD, 2/2001-6/2007
DNA Officer, American Red Cross, National Histocompatibility Laboratory, University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, MA, 8/2000-1/2001
Scientist I, American Red Cross, National Histocompatibility Laboratory, University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, MD, 2/1997-8/2000
Research Associate, American Red Cross, National Histocompatibility Laboratory, University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, MD, 2/1996-2/1997
Research Assistant, National Histocompatibility Laboratory of the American Red Cross, Rockville, MD, 10/1994-2/1996
Research Fellow I, National Histocompatibility Laboratory of the American Red Cross, Rockville, MD, 10/1993-9/1994
Visiting Scientist, Immunogenetics Laboratory, National Cancer Institute, Genoa, Italy, 11/1992-10/1993
Attending Doctor/Lecturer, Department of Dermatology and Immunology, No. 1 Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, P.R., China, 7/1990-11/1992
Physician, Department of Dermatology, No. 3 Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, P.R., China, 1/1983-7/1987

Institutional Committee Activities

Member, GME Curriculum Subcommittee, 7/2012-present
Member, Graduate Medical Education, 7/2012-present
Member, Stem Cell Transplant Graft Failure Review Committee, 2012-present
Judge, Endowed Fellowship Awards, 2012

Honors and Awards

1999 Innovative Thinking Award, National Headquarters of the American Red Cross
1998 First Level Award for Employee Excellence in Professional/Technical Service, American Red Cross
1995 Incentive Award, National Headquarters of the American Red Cross

Professional Memberships

American Society for Blood & Marrow Transplantation (ID#5650)
Member, 10/2012-present
American Society of Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (ASHI #10465)
Member, 1997-present
American Society of Transplantation (AST #511428)
Member, 3/2010-present
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT #30877)
Member, 2010-present
Texas Transplantation Society (TTS #4132)
Member, 5/2012-present

Selected Publications

Peer-Reviewed Original Research Articles

1. Fernández-Viňa MA, Hollenbach JA, Lyke KE, Sztein MB, Maiers M, Klitz W, Cano P, Mack S, Single R, Brautbar C, Israel S, Raimondi E, Khoriaty E, Inati A, Andreani M, Testi M, Moraes ME, Thomson G, Stastny P, Cao K. Tracking human migrations by the analysis of the distribution of HLA alleles, lineages and haplotypes in closed and open populations (review). Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367(1590):820-829, 3/2012. PMCID: PMC3267126.
2. Jordan SC, Reinsmoen N, Lai CH, Cao K, Kahwaji J, Peng A, Villicana R, Vo A. Desensitizing the broadly human leukocyte antigen-sensitized patient awaiting deceased donor kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 44(1):60-61, 1/2012. PMID: 22310579.
3. Cao K, Street J, Johnson J, Wang Q, Lau M, Darke C. A new HLA-C allele, C*08:43, identified during a UCLA Immunogenetics Centre cell exchange. Tissue Antigens 78(6):459-60, 12/2011. e-Pub 7/13/2011. PMID: 21749330.
4. Yanagida R, Czer LS, Reinsmoen NL, Cao K, Rafiei M, De Robertis MA, Mirocha J, Kass RM, Kobashigawa JA, Trento A. Impact of virtual cross match on waiting times for heart transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg 92(6):2104-2111, 12/2011. PMID: 22115224.
5. Lai CH, Cao K, Ong G, Naim M, Wang Q, Mirocha J, Vo A, Jordan SC, Reinsmoen NL. Antibody testing strategies for deceased donor kidney transplantation after immunomodulatory therapy. Transplantation 92(1):48-53, 7/2011. PMID: 21562450.
6. Lyke KE, Fernández-Viňa MA, Cao K, Hollenbach J, Coulibaly D, Kone AK, Guindo A, Burdett LA, Hartzman RJ, Wahl AR, Hildebrand WH, Doumbo OK, Plowe CV, Sztein MB. Association of HLA alleles with Plasmodium falciparum severity in Malian children. Tissue Antigens 77(6):562-571, 2011. PMCID: PMC3152196.
7. Kahwaji J, Sinha A, Toyoda M, Ge S, Reinsmoen N, Cao K, Lai CH, Villicana R, Peng A, Jordan S, Vo A. Infectious complications in kidney-transplant recipients desensitized with rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulin. Clin J Am Soc Neph 6(12):2894-2900, 2011. PMCID: PMC3255382.
8. Reinsmoen NL, Lai CH, Heidecke H, Cao K, Ong G, Naim M, Wang Q, Mirocha J, Vo AA, Jordan SC, Dragun D. Anti-angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibody associated with C4d+ antibody mediated rejection (AMR) in patients with no donor HLA specific antibody (DHSA). Transplantation 90(12):1473-1477, 12/2010. PMID: 21030904.
9. Vo AA, Peng A, Toyoda M, Kahwaji J, Cao K, Lai CH, Reinsmoen NL, Villicana R, Jordan SC. Use of intravenous immune globulin and rituximab for desensitization of highly HLA-sensitized patients awaiting kidney transplantation. Transplantation 89(9):1095-1102, 5/2010. PMID: 20110854.
10. Street J, Johnson J, Pepperall J, Cao K, Darke C. A new HLA-DRB1 allele: DRB1*0343. Tissue Antigens 76(3):255-256, 2010. PMID: 20492593.
11. Mack SJ, Tu B, Lazaro A, Yang R, Lancaster AK, Cao K, Ng J, Hurley CK. HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies distinguish Eastern European Americans from the general European American population. Tissue Antigens 73(1):17-32, 1/2009. e-Pub 10/2008. PMCID: PMC3495166.
12. Leffell MS, Cao K, Coppage M, Hansen LA, Hart JM, Pereira N, Pereira S, Reinsmoen NL, Senitzer D, Smith A, Torres M, Vega1 R, Fuchs E. Incidence of humoral sensitization in HLA partially mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Tissue Antigens 74(6):494-498, 2009. PMCID: PMC3123776.
13. Reinsmoen NL, Lai CH, Vo A, Cao K, Ong G, Naim M, Wang Q, Jordan SC. Acceptable donor-specific antibody levels allowing for successful deceased and living donor kidney transplantation after desensitization therapy. Transplantation 86(6):820-825, 9/2008. PMID: 18813107.
14. Lazaro AM, Xiao Y, Cao K, Masaberg C, Nichol L, Ng J, Hurley CK, Posch PE. Twenty-three novel alleles increase diversity at the HLA-C locus. Tissue Antigens 71(6):560-633, 6/2008. e-Pub 3/2008. PMID: 18380775.
15. Lazaro AM, Xiao Y, Cao K, Masaberg C, Nichol L, Ng J, Hurley CK, Posch PE. Expanding diversity at the HLA-B locus: 28 novel HLA-B alleles. Tissue Antigens 71(5):471-4, 5/2008. e-Pub 3/2008. PMID: 18331525.
16. Lazaro AM, Xiao Y, Cao K, Masaberg C, Nichol L, Ng J, Hurley CK, Posch PE. Thirty-two novel HLA-A alleles identified during intermediate resolution testing. Tissue Antigens 71(2):165-8, 2/2008. e-Pub 12/6/2007. PMID: 18069934.
17. Tu B, Mack SJ, Lazaro A, Lancaster A, Thomson G, Cao K, Chen M, Ling G, Hartzman RJ, Ng J, Hurley CK. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in an African American population. Tissue Antigens 69(1):73-85, 2007. PMID: 17212710.
18. Hou L, Tu B, Ling G, Tang T, Cao K, Steiner NK, Lazaro A, Ng J, Hartzman RJ, Hurley CK. Strategies for evaluating B*18 allelic diversity by sequence-based typing applied to studies of a population from Singapore and African-Americans. Tissue Antigens 67(1):66-69, 1/2006. PMID: 16451205.
19. Lazaro AM, Steiner NK, Cao K, Slack R, Chen DS, Xiao Y, Beduhn E, Ng J, Hartzman RJ, Hurley CK. Searching for HLA-DRB1*1206 in volunteer marrow donors in four US population groups. Tissue Antigens 68(5):439-441, 2006. PMID: 17092258.
20. Lazaro AM, Cao K, Masaberg C, Steiner NK, Xiao Y, Tu B, Turner V, Nickerson P, Stoll S, Schall C, Valdez R, Ng J, Hartzman RJ, Hurley CK. Twenty-three novel HLA-B alleles identified during intermediate-resolution testing. Tissue Antigens 68(3):245-248, 2006. PMID: 16948646.
21. Han SX, Shang YB, Li JH, Geng L, Zhai N, Cao K, Song FJ. [High resolution DNA typing for HLA-A, B, Cw genes by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide probes method in the Shenyang Han population]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 22(6):665-7, 12/2005. PMID: 16331567.
22. Helms C, Saccone NL, Cao L, Daw JA, Cao K, Hsu TM, Taillon-Miller P, Duan S, Gordon D, Pierce B, Ott J, Rice J, Fernandez-Vina MA, Kwok PY, Menter A, Bowcock AM. Localization of PSORS1 to a haplotype block harboring HLA-C and distinct from corneodesmosin and HCR. Hum Genet 118(3-4):466-76, 12/2005. e-Pub 10/2005. PMID: 16235096.
23. Cao K, Moormann AM, Lyke KE, Masaberg C, Sumba OP, Doumbo OK, Koech D, Lancaster A, Nelson M, Meyer D, Single R, Hartzman RJ, Plowe CV, Kazura J, Mann DL, Sztein MB, Thomson G, Fernández-Viña MA. Differentiation between African populations is evidenced by the diversity of Alleles and Haplotypes of HLA class I Loci. Tissue Antigens 63(4):293-325, 2004. PMID: 15009803.
24. Ellexson-Turner ME, Leffell MS, Zachary AA, Turner S, Bennett T, Sidebottom DA, Cao K, Fernández-Viña MA, Hildebrand WH. Sequence-Based Typing of HLA-Class I Alleles in Alaskan Yupik Eskimo. Human Immunology 62(6):639-644, 2001. PMID: 11390039.

Abstracts

1. Cao K, Guerrero E, Carmazzi Y, Barnes T, Cano P, Rezvani K, Shpall E, Fernández-Viña M. Diversify HLA-ligands (HLA-L) for killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes in umbilical cord blood units (UCBU) could benefit patients (PTS) in need of hematophoietic stem cells (HSC) transplants (Tx). Human Immunology 74(51):25 (#33-OR), 2013.
2. Zhao W, Guerrero E, Willis D, Barnes T, Carmazzi Y, Partlow D, Cano P, Cao K. Identification of novel HLA alleles by sequence based typing (SBT): A*01:114, A*02:397, A*11:129, A*32:46, B*44:160 and C*07:307. Human Immunology 74(51):141 (#133-P), 2013.
3. Reinsmoen NL, Lai C-H, Mirocha J, Cao K, Ong GD, Naim M, Wang Q, Riega S, Rafiei M, Patel J, Kobashigawa J. Increased Negative Impact of Anti-Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Antibodies Together with de novo Donor HLA Specific Antibodies on Grant Outcome in Heart Transplant Recipients. J Heart and Lung Trasplant 32(4):S113, 2013.
4. Vo AA, Choi J, KahwajuJ, Cisneros K, Peng A, Villicana R, Reinsmoen N, Lai CH, Cao K, Jordan SC. Analysis of Factors Associated with Risk for Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Broadly Sensitized Patients Desensitized for Deceased Donor (DD) Transplantation. Am J Transpl 12(S3(12)):414 (#414), 2012.
5. Vo AA, Choi J, Kahwaji J, Cisneros K, Peng A, Villicana R, Reinsmoen M, Lai CH, Cao K, Jordan SC. Analysis of Factors Associated with Unresponsiveness to Densitization Using IVIG and Rituximab in Broadly HLA Sensitized Patients. Amer J Transp 12(Sup 3(12)):233, Abstract #691, 2012.

Book Chapters

1. Reinsmoen NL, Cao K, Lai C-H. Immunologic Disorders Autoimmunity: Genetics and Immunlogic Mechanisms. In: Emery and Rimoin's Principles and Practice of Medical Genetics. Vol. 2, 6th. Ed(s) Academic Press. Elsevier Ltd., Chapter 76:1763-1776, 2013. ISBN: 9780123838346.
2. Cao K, Lai C-H, Vo AA, Mirocha J, Naim M, Ong G, Masukawa R, Duong H, Wang Q, Jordan SJ, Reinsmoen NL. High CPRA is Associated With Occurrence of AMR in Kidney Transplant Patients. In: Visuals of the Clinical Histocompatibility Workshop : Punta Cana, Dominican Republic Invitational 2011, March 9-11, 2011. Ed(s) Paul Terasaki. One Lambda, Inc. Canoga Park, California, 28-29, 2011.
3. Cao, K Coleman B, Czer LS, Lai C-H, Mirocha J, Ong G, Naim M, Wang Q, Reinsmoen NL. Impact of Anti-HLA antibodies on Heart Transplant outcome. In: Visuals of the Clinical Histocompatibility Workshop: Maui, Hawaii Invitational 2010, Maui, Hawaii, March 2-5, 2010. Ed(s) Paul I. Terasaki. One Lambda, Inc: Canoga Park, CA, 58-60, 2010.
4. Lai C-H, Okhovat J, Ong G, Naim M, Wang Q, Cao K, Reinsmoen NL. Interrelationship between the sequential single antigen profiles. In: Visuals of the Clinical Histocompatibility Workshop: Maui, Hawaii Invitational 2010, Maui, Hawaii, March 2-5, 2010. Ed(s) Paul I Terasaki. One Lambda, Inc. Canoga Park, CA, 98-99, 2010.
5. Cao K, Coleman B, Czer LS, Simsir S, Ernst Schwarz, Lai C-H, Ong G, Naim M, Wang Q, Reinsmoen NL. Successful Virtual Crossmatches Increases Heart Transplantation of Sensitized Patients. In: Visuals of the Clinical Histocompatibility Workshop: Rancho Mirage, California Invitational 2009, Rancho Mirage, California, March 12-14, 2009. Ed(s) Paul I. Terasaki. One Lambda, Inc: Canoga Park, CA, 86-87, 2009.
6. Cao K, Lai CH, Ong G, Naim M, Wang Q, Jordan SC, Reinsmoen NL. HLA Antibody Identification Using Solid Phase Immunoassays to Monitor Changes in Donor Specific Antibodies. In: Visual of the Clinical Histocompatibility Workshop. 2/26-3/1/08 Honolulu Hawaii. Ed(s) Paul I Terasaki. One Lambda: Canoga Park, CA, 34-35, 2008.
7. Lai CH, Ong G, Naim M, Cao K, Vo A, Toyoda M, Jordan SC, Reinsmoen NL. Impact of High Dose IVIG (+/-Rituximab) Desensitization Therapy on sCD30, BAFF, and HLA Specific Antibody Levels in Highly Sensitized Patients. In: Visual of the Clinical Histocompatibility Workshop. 2/26-3/1/08 Honolulu Hawaii. Ed(s) Paul I. Terasaki. One Lambda, Inc: Canoga Park, CA, 20-21, 2008.
8. Hurley, CK, Hegland J, Fernández-Viña MA, Maiers MA, Lazaro A, Hartzman RJ, Cao K, Ng J, Janzen M, Setterholm M. Designing a Typing System for a Hematopoietic Stem Cell Registry. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 464-466, 2006.
9. Moormann AM, Cao K, Masaberg C, Sumba OP, Koech D, Ng J, Hartzman RJ, Kazura J, Fernández-Viña MA. Genetic Diversity Joint Report: Population Reports: Population: Luo and Nandi from Kenya. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 582, 2006.
10. Cao K, Lyke KE, Masaberg C, Doumbo OK, Ng J, Hartzman RJ, Plowe CV, Sztein MB, Fernández-Viña MA. Genetic Diversity Joint Report: Population Reports: Population: Malian admixed from Mali. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 583-584, 2006.
11. Cao K, Masaberg C, Yu J, Mann DL, Fernández-Viña MA. Genetic Diversity Joint Report: Population Reports: Populations: Ugandans from Kampala, Uganda and Zambians from Lusaka, Zambia. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 589-590, 2006.
12. Yunis EJ, Larsen CE, Fernández-Viña M, Awdeh ZL, Cao K, Romero T, Alper Cam. Human MHC haplotypes and their fragments or blocks. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 54-64, 2006.
13. Hurley CK, Cao K, Tang T, Steiner N, Lazaro AM, Howard HC, Ng J. Molecular Methods: HLA Alleles. In: Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology. Ed(s) Detrick, B., Hamilton RG, Folds J.D. ASM Press: Washington, D.C., 1198-1214, 2006.
14. Cao K, Fernández-Viña MA. Populations: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian Pacific Islander and Native American from the United States. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 648-651, 2006.
15. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic Epitopes associated with specificities Bw4 and Bw6. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1070-1072, 2006.
16. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdette L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with B37. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1097-1103, 2006.
17. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with Cw4, Cw6. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1079-1082, 2006.
18. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with Cw5, 8, 12, 14, 16. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1083-1086, 2006.
19. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdette L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with Cw7. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1087-1088, 2006.
20. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdette L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with HLA-B13. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1091-1096, 2006.
21. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with HLA-B41. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1043-1045, 2006.
22. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with HLA-B47. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1046-1050, 2006.
23. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with HLA-B48. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1051-1054, 2006.
24. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with the antigen group A28 and its serologic splits A68 and A69. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 965-972, 2006.
25. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with the B12 antigen group (B44, B45) and the B21 antigen group (B49 and B50). In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop & Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 997-1003, 2006.
26. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viñ. MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with the B40 antigen groups B40 and its serologic splits B60 and B61. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1038-1042, 2006.
27. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with the specificities A23 and A24. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 953-958, 2006.
28. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viñ. MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with the specificities B35, B51, B52, B53 and B78. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 973-996, 2006.
29. Yunis EJ, Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with the specificities HLA-B7, B42, B73, B81, B82 and B22. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 1010-1016, 2006.
30. Gutierrez M, Stoddard J, Machan C, Burdett L, Cao K, Hartzman RJ, Fernández-Viña. MA. Report of the serologic reactivity of alleles associated with the specificity HLA-A2. In: Immunology of the Human MHC, Proceedings of the 13th International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference. I. Ed(s) Hansen, JA. IHWG Press: Seattle, WA, 949-952, 2006.
31. Fernández-Viña MA, Cao K, Middleton D. Molecular HLA Typing, HLA: The Major Histocompatibility Complex. In: Clinical Laboratory Medicine. 36. Ed(s) McClatchey K.D.,. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Awolters Kluwer Company: Philadelphia, PA, 754-762, 2002.
32. Song FJ, Cao K. Dermatology and Dermatological sex-transmitted Diseases. In: Textbook for Chinese rural doctors. Publishing House of People’s Health: Beijing, 1992.
33. Cao K, Song FJ. Study aid (2) for Dermatology. In: Chinese Rural Medicine J. 3, 59-64, 1991.
34. Cao K, Song FJ. Study Aid (1) for Dermatology. In: Chinese Rural Medicine J. 2, 40-46, 1990.

Last updated: 7/17/2014