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Tito R. Mendoza, PhD, MS, MEd

Present Title & Affiliation

Primary Appointment

Associate Professor, Department of Symptom Research, Division of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX

Bio Statement

I spend most of my time doing collaborative work that utilizes my quantitative background (psychometrics and statistics) and research training to develop and evaluate the measurement properties of patient-reported outcomes assessment tools and to help design and analyze studies with symptoms as primary outcomes.

More recently, I have been involved as an investigator in a consortium (with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Mayo Clinic) funded by the National Cancer Institute to develop and validate a patient-reported outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria – Adverse Event (PRO-CTCAE). I co-led the development of the PRO-CTCAE items and I am currently involved in designing the validation study.

Research Interests

My primary research interest is in applying psychometrics to develop and evaluate symptom assessment tools. I was instrumental in the development of single-symptom (Brief Fatigue Inventory, BFI) and multiple-symptom (M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory, MDASI) assessment tools. My collaboration with clinicians at M. D. Anderson have resulted in the development of several disease-specific and cancer-site-specific modules of the MDASI, including the MDASI-Brain Tumor, the MDASI-Head and Neck, the MDASI-Thyroid, the MDASI-Gastrointestinal Cancer, and the MDASI-Heart Failure, and others. I have provided our international collaborators with the necessary theoretic measurement framework to conduct foreign-language validation of our assessment tools.

An integral aspect of my research is the application of advanced statistical models in understanding symptom outcomes.  I am interested in determining how patient-reported outcome can be use to define and develop responder type analysis.

Office Address

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
Department of Symptom Research
1400 Pressler St Unit 1450
Unit Number: 1450
Houston, TX 77030
Room Number: FCT11.5074
Phone: (713) 745-3486
Fax: (713) 745-3475

Education & Training

Degree-Granting Education

1999 University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, PHD, Quantitative Methods
1995 University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, MS, Statistics
1991 University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, MEd, Research and Measurement
1987 University of the Philippines, Los Baños, Philippines, BS, Statistics


Academic Appointments

Assistant Professor, Department of Symptom Research, Division of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 2004-2010

Selected Publications

Peer-Reviewed Original Research Articles

1. Wang XS, Shi Q, Shah ND, Heijnen CJ, Cohen EN, Reuben JM, Orlowski RZ, Qazilbash MH, Johnson VE, Williams LA, Mendoza TR, Cleeland CS. Inflammatory markers and development of symptom burden in patients with multiple myeloma during autologous stem cell transplantation. Clin Cancer Res 20(5):1366-74, 3/1/2014. e-Pub 1/14/2014. PMCID: PMC3947467.
2. Hay JL, Atkinson TM, Reeve BB, Mitchell SA, Mendoza TR, Willis G, Minasian LM, Clauser SB, Denicoff A, O'Mara A, Chen A, Bennett AV, Paul DB, Gagne J, Rogak L, Sit L, Viswanath V, Schrag D, Basch E, NCI PRO-CTCAE Study Group. Cognitive interviewing of the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE). Qual Life Res 23(1):257-69, 2/2014. e-Pub 7/20/2013. PMCID: PMC3896507.
3. Jones D, Zhao F, Fisch MJ, Wagner LI, Patrick-Miller LJ, Cleeland CS, Mendoza TR. The validity and utility of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory in patients with prostate cancer: evidence from the Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP) data from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Clin Genitourin Cancer 12(1):41-9, 2/2014. e-Pub 10/12/2013. PMCID: PMC3948205.
4. Escalante CP, Meyers C, Reuben JM, Wang X, Qiao W, Manzullo E, Alvarez RH, Morrow PK, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Wang XS, Mendoza T, Liu W, Holmes H, Hwang J, Pisters K, Overman M, Cleeland C. A randomized, double-blind, 2-period, placebo-controlled crossover trial of a sustained-release methylphenidate in the treatment of fatigue in cancer patients. Cancer J 20(1):8-14, Jan-Feb, 1/2014. PMID: 24445757.
5. Mendoza TR, Osei JS, Shi Q, Duvic M. Development of the alopecia areata symptom impact scale. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 16(1):S51-2, 12/2013. PMID: 24326557.
6. Shi Q, Duvic M, Osei JS, Hordinsky MK, Norris DA, Price VH, Amos CI, Christiano AM, Mendoza TR. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in alopecia areata patients-a secondary analysis of the National Alopecia Areata Registry data. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc 16(1):S49-50, 12/2013. PMID: 24326555.
7. Armstrong TS, Wefel JS, Wang M, Gilbert MR, Won M, Bottomley A, Mendoza TR, Coens C, Werner-Wasik M, Brachman DG, Choucair AK, Mehta M. Net clinical benefit analysis of radiation therapy oncology group 0525: a phase III trial comparing conventional adjuvant temozolomide with dose-intensive temozolomide in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. J Clin Oncol 31(32):4076-84, 11/10/2013. e-Pub 10/7/2013. PMCID: PMC3816957.
8. Gunn GB, Mendoza TR, Fuller CD, Gning I, Frank SJ, Beadle BM, Hanna EY, Lu C, Cleeland CS, Rosenthal DI. High symptom burden prior to radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: A patient-reported outcomes study. Head Neck 35(10):1490-8, 10/2013. e-Pub 11/20/2012. PMCID: PMC3788079.
9. Barney BJ, Wang XS, Lu C, Liao Z, Johnson VE, Cleeland CS, Mendoza TR. Prognostic value of patient-reported symptom interference in patients with late-stage lung cancer. Qual Life Res 22(8):2143-50, 10/2013. e-Pub 1/31/2013. PMCID: PMC3724766.
10. Mendoza TR, Zhao F, Cleeland CS, Wagner LI, Patrick-Miller LJ, Fisch MJ. The validity and utility of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory in patients with breast cancer: evidence from the Symptom Outcomes and Practice Patterns (SOAPP) data from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Clin Breast Cancer 13(5):325-34, 10/2013. e-Pub 6/28/2013. PMCID: PMC3775936.
11. Haines D, Martin M, Carson S, Oliveros O, Green S, Coates T, Eile J, Schilling L, Dinu B, Mendoza T, Gerstenberger E, Trachtenberg F, Vichinsky E, Thalassemia Clinical Research Network. Pain in thalassaemia: the effects of age on pain frequency and severity. Br J Haematol 160(5):680-7, 3/2013. e-Pub 12/30/2012. PMID: 23278768.
12. Armstrong TS, Wefel JS, Gning I, Acquaye A, Vera-Bolanos E, Gilbert MR, Cleeland CS, Mendoza T. Congruence of primary brain tumor patient and caregiver symptom report. Cancer 118(20):5026-37, 10/15/2012. e-Pub 3/13/2012. PMID: 22415423.
13. Fisch MJ, Lee JW, Weiss M, Wagner LI, Chang VT, Cella D, Manola JB, Minasian LM, McCaskill-Stevens W, Mendoza TR, Cleeland CS. Prospective, observational study of pain and analgesic prescribing in medical oncology outpatients with breast, colorectal, lung, or prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 30(16):1980-8, 6/1/2012. e-Pub 4/16/2012. PMCID: PMC3383175.
14. Mendoza TR, Koyyalagunta D, Burton AW, Thomas SK, Phan MH, Giralt SA, Shah JJ, Cleeland CS. Changes in pain and other symptoms in patients with painful multiple myeloma-related vertebral fracture treated with kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty. J Pain 13(6):564-70, 6/2012. e-Pub 4/28/2012. PMCID: PMC3367066.
15. Burton AW, Mendoza T, Gebhardt R, Hamid B, Nouri K, Perez-Toro M, Ting J, Koyyalagunta D. Vertebral compression fracture treatment with vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: experience in 407 patients with 1,156 fractures in a tertiary cancer center. Pain Med 12(12):1750-7, 12/2011. e-Pub 11/28/2011. PMID: 22123171.
16. Swartz RJ, Schwartz C, Basch E, Cai L, Fairclough DL, McLeod L, Mendoza TR, Rapkin B, SAMSI Psychometric Program Longitudinal Assessment of Patient-Reported Outcomes Working Group. The king's foot of patient-reported outcomes: current practices and new developments for the measurement of change. Qual Life Res 20(8):1159-1167, 10/2011. e-Pub 2/19/2011. PMCID: PMC3178017.
17. Cleeland CS, Mendoza TR, Wang XS, Woodruff JF, Palos GR, Richman SP, Nazario A, Lynch GR, Liao KP, Mobley GM, Lu C. Levels of symptom burden during chemotherapy for advanced lung cancer: differences between public hospitals and a tertiary cancer center. J Clin Oncol 29(21):2859-65, 7/20/2011. e-Pub 6/20/2011. PMCID: PMC3138716.
18. Armstrong TS, Vera-Bolanos E, Gning I, Acquaye A, Gilbert MR, Cleeland C, Mendoza T. The impact of symptom interference using the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Brain Tumor Module (MDASI-BT) on prediction of recurrence in primary brain tumor patients. Cancer 117(14):3222-8, 7/15/2011. e-Pub 1/24/2011. PMID: 21264841.
19. Cleeland CS, Wang XS, Shi Q, Mendoza TR, Wright SL, Berry MD, Malveaux D, Shah PK, Gning I, Hofstetter WL, Putnam JB, Vaporciyan AA. Automated symptom alerts reduce postoperative symptom severity after cancer surgery: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Clin Oncol 29(8):994-1000, 3/10/2011. e-Pub 1/31/2011. PMCID: PMC3068055.
20. Palos GR, Mendoza TR, Liao KP, Anderson KO, Garcia-Gonzalez A, Hahn K, Nazario A, Ramondetta LM, Valero V, Lynch GR, Jibaja-Weiss ML, Cleeland CS. Caregiver symptom burden: the risk of caring for an underserved patient with advanced cancer. Cancer 117(5):1070-9, 3/1/2011. e-Pub 10/19/2010. PMCID: PMC3065823.
21. Bruner DW, Hanisch LJ, Reeve BB, Trotti AM, Schrag D, Sit L, Mendoza TR, Minasian L, O'Mara A, Denicoff AM, Rowland JH, Montello M, Geoghegan C, Abernethy AP, Clauser SB, Castro K, Mitchell SA, Burke L, Trentacosti AM, Basch EM. Stakeholder perpectives on implementing the National Cancer Institute's patient-reported outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE). Translational Behavioral Medicine 1(1):110-22, 3/2011.
22. Atkinson TM, Rosenfeld BD, Sit L, Mendoza TR, Fruscione M, Lavene D, Shaw M, Li Y, Hay J, Cleeland CS, Scher HI, Breitbart WS, Basch E. Using confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate construct validity of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). J Pain Symptom Manage 41(3):558-65, 3/2011. e-Pub 12/4/2010. PMCID: PMC3062715.
23. Mendoza TR, Wang XS, Lu C, Palos GR, Liao Z, Mobley GM, Kapoor S, Cleeland CS. Measuring the symptom burden of lung cancer: the validity and utility of the lung cancer module of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory. Oncologist 16(2):217-27, 2011. e-Pub 2/1/2011. PMCID: PMC3228083.
24. Shi Q, Trask PC, Wang XS, Mendoza TR, Apraku WA, Malekifar M, Cleeland CS. Does recall period have an effect on cancer patients' ratings of the severity of multiple symptoms? J Pain Symptom Manage 40(2):191-9, 8/2010. e-Pub 6/25/2010. PMID: 20579835.
25. Wang XS, Cleeland CS, Mendoza TR, Yun YH, Wang Y, Okuyama T, Johnson VE. Impact of cultural and linguistic factors on symptom reporting by patients with cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 102(10):732-38, 5/19/2010. e-Pub 3/26/2010. PMCID: PMC2873184.
26. Wang XS, Williams LA, Eng C, Mendoza TR, Shah NA, Kirkendoll KJ, Shah PK, Trask PC, Palos GR, Cleeland CS. Validation and application of a module of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory for measuring multiple symptoms in patients with gastrointestinal cancer (the MDASI-GI). Cancer 116(8):2053-63, 4/15/2010. e-Pub 2/2010. PMID: 20166216.
27. Armstrong TS, Gning I, Mendoza TR, Vera-Bolanos E, Gilbert MR, Rhines LD, Weinberg JS, Sanchez-Williams G, Levin V, Burton AW, Cleeland C. Reliability and validity of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Spine Tumor Module. J Neurosurg Spine 12(4):421-30, 4/2010. PMID: 20367379.
28. Atkinson TM, Mendoza TR, Sit L, Passik S, Scher HI, Cleeland C, Basch E. The Brief Pain Inventory and its "Pain at its worst in the last 24 hours" item: clinical trial endpoint considerations. Pain Med 11(3):337-46, 3/2010. e-Pub 1/15/2010. PMID: 20030743.
29. Ferreira KA, Teixeira MJ, Mendoza TR, Cleeland CS. Validation of Brief Pain Inventory to Brazilian patients with pain. Support Care Cancer. e-Pub 3/2010. PMID: 20221641.
30. Wang XS, Shi Q, Lu C, Basch EM, Johnson VE, Mendoza TR, Mobley GM, Cleeland CS. Prognostic value of symptom burden for overall survival in patients receiving chemotherapy for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer 116(1):137-45, 1/1/2010. e-Pub 10/2009. PMID: 19852033.
31. Mendoza TR, Laudico AV, Wang XS, Guo H, Matsuda ML, Yosuico VD, Fragante EP, Cleeland CS. Assessment of fatigue in cancer patients and community dwellers: validation study of the Filipino version of the Brief Fatigue Inventory. Oncology 79(1-2):112-7, 2010. e-Pub 11/22/2010. PMID: 21088437.
32. Park HC, Janjan NA, Mendoza TR, Lin EH, Vadhan-Raj S, Hundal M, Zhang Y, Delclos ME, Crane CH, Das P, Wang XS, Cleeland CS, Krishnan S. Temporal patterns of fatigue predict pathologic response in patients treated with preoperative chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 75(3):775-81, 11/1/2009. e-Pub 2/21/2009. PMID: 19231100.
33. Armstrong TS, Gning I, Mendoza TR, Weinberg JS, Gilbert MR, Tortorice ML, Cleeland CS. Clinical utility of the MDASI-BT in patients with brain metastases. J Pain Symptom Manage 37(3):331-40, 3/2009. e-Pub 8/3/2008. PMID: 18676120.
34. Shi Q, Wang XS, Mendoza TR, Pandya KJ, Cleeland CS. Assessing persistent cancer pain: a comparison of current-pain ratings and pain recalled from the past week. J Pain Symptom Manage 37(2):168-74, 2/2009. e-Pub 8/3/2008. PMCID: PMC2705174.
35. Gning I, Trask PC, Mendoza TR, Harle MT, Gutierrez KA, Kitaka SA, Sherman SI, Cleeland CS. Development and initial validation of the thyroid cancer module of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory. Oncology 76(1):59-68, 2009. e-Pub 12/1/2008. PMID: 19052478.
36. Cella D, Viswanathan HN, Hays RD, Mendoza TR, Stein KD, Pasta DJ, Foreman AJ, Vadhan-Raj S, Kallich JD. Development of a fatigue and functional impact scale in anemic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Cancer 113(6):1480-8, 9/15/2008. PMID: 18642348.
37. Fadol A, Mendoza T, Gning I, Kernicki J, Symes L, Cleeland CS, Lenihan D. Psychometric testing of the MDASI-HF: a symptom assessment instrument for patients with cancer and concurrent heart failure. J Card Fail 14(6):497-507, 8/2008. PMID: 18672198.
38. Rosenthal DI, Mendoza TR, Chambers MS, Burkett VS, Garden AS, Hessell AC, Lewin JS, Ang KK, Kies MS, Gning I, Wang XS, Cleeland CS. The M. D. Anderson symptom inventory-head and neck module, a patient-reported outcome instrument, accurately predicts the severity of radiation-induced mucositis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 72(5):1355-61, 12/2007. PMID: 18501527.
39. Mendoza T, Mayne T, Rublee D, Cleeland C. Reliability and validity of a modified Brief Pain Inventory short form in patients with osteoarthritis. Eur J Pain 10(4):353-61, 5/2006. PMID: 16051509.
40. Mendoza TR, Wang XS, Cleeland CS, Morrissey M, Johnson BA, Wendt JK, Huber SL. The rapid assessment of fatigue severity in cancer patients: use of the Brief Fatigue Inventory. Cancer 85(5):1186-96, 3/1999. PMID: 10091805.


1. Mendoza T, Rosenthal D, Wang X, Mobley G, Cleeland C. Measuring the symptom burden of head and neck cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy using area under the curve. American Society of Clinical Oncology 2009 Annual Meeting, Orlando FL, May 29 - June 2, 2009. J Clin Oncol 27(15 Suppl) (#6067), 5/2009.

Book Chapters

1. Johnson VE, Mendoza TR. Bayesian adaptive design: a novel approach to test the effectiveness of symptom-reducing agents using patient-reported outcomes. In: Cancer Symptom Science: Measurement, Mechanisms, and Management. Ed(s) CS Cleeland, MJ Fisch, AJ Dunn. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge UK, 293-303, 2011.
2. Cleeland CS, Mendoza TR. Symptom measurement by patient report. In: Cancer Symptom Science: Measurement, Mechanisms, and Management. Ed(s) CS Cleeland, MJ Fisch, AJ Dunn. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge UK, 268-84, 2011.

Grant & Contract Support

Title: Collaborative Ependymoma Research Network
Funding Source: Collaborative Ependymoma Research Network (CERN)
Role: Psychometrician
Principal Investigator: Mark Gilbert
Duration: 7/20/2014 - 7/20/2015
Title: Reducing peripheral neuropathy in underserved CRC patients by minocycline
Funding Source: American Cancer Society (ACS)
Role: Co-Investigator
Principal Investigator: Wang, Shelley
Duration: 7/1/2013 - 6/30/2017
Title: Effectiveness of minocycline for reducing symptoms in pancreatic cancer patients
Funding Source: NIH/NCI
Role: Co-Investigator
Principal Investigator: Xin Shelley Wang
Duration: 12/1/2012 - 11/30/2014
Title: Alopecia Areata Registry and Immunogenetic Mechanisms
Funding Source: National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF)
Role: Investigator
Principal Investigator: Duvic, Madeleine
Duration: 3/30/2012 - 3/29/2015
Title: Quality of Life in Patients with Alopecia Areata
Funding Source: National Alopecia Areata Foundation (NAAF)
Role: Principal Investigator
Duration: 7/1/2011 - 12/31/2012
Title: MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Ovarian Cancer: Development and Validation in Patients with Ovarian Cancer
Funding Source: Genentech, Inc.
Role: Co-Principal Investigator
Principal Investigator: Cleeland, Charles
Duration: 6/1/2011 - 3/31/2013
Title: Patient-Reported Outcomes Version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (PRO-CTCAE)
Funding Source: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Role: Investigator
Principal Investigator: Charles Cleeland
Duration: 9/30/2010 - 9/29/2015
Title: Mechanisms of Symptoms of Multiple Myeloma and Its Therapy
Funding Source: NIH/NCI
Role: Psychometrician
Principal Investigator: Charles Cleeland
Duration: 9/1/2008 - 8/31/2014
Title: Reducing the Symptom Burden Produced by Aggressive Cancer Therapies
Funding Source: NIH/NCI
Role: Co-Investigator
Principal Investigator: Charles Cleeland
Duration: 7/1/2008 - 4/30/2015
Title: MDASI-GI Validation and Clinical Utility in Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer Receiving Chemotherapy
Funding Source: Pfizer
Role: Collaborator
Principal Investigator: Shelley Wang
Duration: 3/7/2008 - 3/31/2010
Title: Continuation of Alopecia Areata Registry
Funding Source: NIH/NIAMS
Role: Investigator
Principal Investigator: Madeleine Duvic
Duration: 9/30/2006 - 3/29/2012

Last updated: 5/16/2014