About Dr. Willis
The work is accomplished through a variety of simulations and measurements. Radiographic techniques can be developed for CR and DR examinations using a model of x-ray generator output, tabulated values of attenuation and scatter by the patient, and models of receptor radiation absorption. The mathematical models are validated using actual x-ray generators, patient phantoms, and image receptors with physical measurements of receptor performance and x-ray spectroscopy.
A lack of objective standards for image quality is a problem in diagnostic radiology. Dr. Willis is currently working with software developed by Duke University Medical Center that assesses the quality of chest images according to ten perceptual attributes. Using this software, it may be possible to identify substandard images for subsequent clinical intervention.
Associate Professor, Department of Imaging Physics, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
Regular Faculty Member, GSBS University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX
Adjunct Associate Professor, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX
Optimizing radiographic techniques for CR and DR examinations | Establishing practical quality metrics for CR and DR | Evaluating phantoms for CR and DR
Digital Radiography | Pediatric Radiography | Duel Energy Subtraction Radiography | Projection Radiography
|1984||University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA, PHD, Biophysical Sciences|
|1980||Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, MS, Nuclear Engineering|
|1975||Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, BS, General Studies (Sciences)|
|1997||American Board of Radiology|
Associate Professor, Department of Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 1998 - 2004
Assistant Professor, Department of Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 1997 - 1998
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Department of Radiology, University of Texas Houston Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 1996 - 1997
Assistant Professor, Department of Department of Radiology, University of Texas Houston Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 1992 - 1996
Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Department of Radiology, University of Texas Houston Health Science Center, Houston, TX, 1991 - 1992
Nuclear Medical Science Officer, Department of Radiology, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio, TX, 1990 - 1991
Research Associate, Department of Department of Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 1984 - 1985
Special Faculty Member, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX, 1999 - 2004
Faculty Member, University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX, 1996 - 1999
Director, Imaging Physics Residency Program, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 2007 - 2016
Institutional Committee Activities
Alternate, Credentials Committee of the Medical Staff, 2014 - Present
Member, Faculty Senate, 2014 - Present
Member, Education Committee for Health Professionals (formerly known as Non-Physician Clinical Education Committee), 2010 - 2015
Chair, Non-Physician Clinical Education Committee (now known as Education Committee for Health Professionals), 2009 - 2010
Member, Physician Assistant Post Graduate Oncology Program Advisory Committee, 2008 - Present
Vice-chair, Non-Physician Clinical Education Committee (now known as Education Committee for Health Professionals), 2007 - 2009
Member, Imaging Physics Residency Steering Committee, 2004 - 2015
Member, Department of Imaging Physics Steering Committee, 2004 - 2007
International Atomic Energy Agency, International Expert Program, Vienna, Austria, 2007 - Present
Private Consultant, Diagnostic Radiological Physics, Bellaire, TX, 1993 - Present
Military or Other Governmental Service
Major, Physicist, Gulf War Veteran, Brooke Army Medical Center, Office of the Surgeon General, Active Duty, 1990 - 1991
Viet Nam Era Veteran, Cadet, Active Duty, United States Air Force Academy, 1971 - 1973
Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Army Reserve, 1971 - 2003
|2014||Certificate of Appreciation, Physics Case of the Day Education Exhibit, Chicago, IL, 100th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America|
|2013||Certificate of Appreciation, Physics Case of the Day Education Exhibit, Chicago, IL, 99th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America|
|2010||Fellow, American Association of Physicists in Medicine|
|2005||Certificate of Appreciation for Excellence in Reviewing Manuscripts in Pediatric Radiology, The Society for Pediatric Radiology|
|2005||Certificate of Appreciation for Contributions Educating Radiation Control Staff, Texas Department of State Health Services|
|2005||Certificate of Appreciation, Physics Case of the Day Education Exhibit, Chicago, IL, 91st Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting of the Radiological Society of North America|
|2004||Certificate of Appreciation, Physics Case of the Day Exhibit, Chicago, IL, 90th Radiological Society of North America, 90th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting|
|2002||Certificate of Appreciation, Physics Case of the Day Exhibit, Chicago, IL, Radiological Society of North America, 88th Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting|
|1981||The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Group Achievement Award, NASA|
|1978||Phi Kappa Phi Honor Fraternity|
- Li G, Greene TC, Nishino TK, Willis CE. Evaluation of cassette-based digital radiography detectors using standardized image quality metrics: AAPM TG-150 Draft Image Detector Tests. J Appl Clin Med Phys 17(5):6008, 2016. e-Pub 2016. PMID: 27685102.
- Prisciandaro JI, Willis CE, Burmeister JW, Clarke GD, Das, RK, Esthappan J, Gerbi BJ, Harkness BA, Patton JA, Peck DJ, Pizzutiello RJ Jr., Sandison GA, White SL, Wichman BD, Ibbott GS, Both S. Essentials and Guidelines for Clinical Medical Physics Residency Training Programs: Executive Summary of AAPM Report Number 249. J Appl Clin Med Phys 15(3):4-13, 2014.
- Hsieh CY, Gladish G, Willis CE. Evaluation of a commercial cardiac motion phantom for dual-energy chest radiography. J Appl Clin Med Phys 15(2):4508, 2014. e-Pub 2014. PMID: 24710435.
- Willis CE, Vinogradskiy YY, Lofton BK, White RA. Gain and offset calibration reduces variation in exposure-dependent SNR among systems with identical digital flat panel detectors. Med Phys 38(7):4422-4429, 2011. PMID: 21859043.
- Don S, Goske MJ, John S, Whiting B, Willis CE. Image Gently pediatric digital radiography summit: executive summary. Pediatr Radiol 41(5):562-565, 2011. e-Pub 2011. PMID: 21253718.
- Jones AK, Polman R, Willis CE, Shepard SJ. One Year's Results from a Server-Based System for Performing Reject Analysis and Exposure Analysis in Computed Radiography. J Digit Imaging 24(2):243-255, 2011. PMID: 19885636.
- Shepard SJ, Wang J, Flynn M, Gingold E, Goldman L, Krugh K, Leong DL, Mah E, Ogden K, Peck D, Samei E. Willis CE. Erratum: An exposure indicator for digital radiography: AAPM Task Group 116 (Executive Summary) Med Phys (2009) 36 (2898-2914). Med Phys 37(1):405, 2010.
- Willis CE. Optimizing Digital Radiography of Children. Eur J Radiol 72(2):266-273, 2009. e-Pub 2009. PMID: 19345030.
- Shepard SJ, Wang J, Flynn M, Gingold E, Goldman L, Krugh K, Leong DL, Mah E, Ogden K, Peck D, Samei E, Wang J, Willis CE. "An exposure indicator for digital radiography: AAPM Task Group 116 (Executive Summary)". Med Phys 36(7):2898-2914, 2009. PMID: 19673189.
- Shah C, Jones AK, Willis CE. Consequences of Modern Anthropometric Dimensions for Radiographic Techniques and Patient Radiation Exposures. Med Phys 35(8):3616-3625, 2008. PMID: 18777922.
- Liu HL, Liu RR, Reeve DM, Shepard SJ, Willis CE. Measurement of CT radiation profile width using CR imaging plates. Med Phys 32(9):2881-7, 2005. PMID: 16266102.
- Samei E, Badano A, Chakraborty D, Compton K, Cornelius C, Corrigan K, Flynn MJ, Hemminger B, Hangiandreou N, Johnson J, Moxley-Stevens DM, Pavlicek W, Roehrig H, Rutz L, Shepard J, Uzenoff RA, Wang J, Willis CE, AAPM TG18. Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: executive summary of AAPM TG18 report. Med Phys 32(4):1205-25, 2005. PMID: 15895604.
- Willis CE, Slovis, TL. The ALARA Concept in pediatric CR and DR: dose reduction in pediatric radiographic exams A white paper conference. Executive Summary. Radiology 234:343-344, 2005.
- Willis CE, Slovis TL. The ALARA concept in pediatric CR and DR: dose reduction in pediatric radiographic exams--a white paper conference. AJR Am J Roentgenol 184(2):373-4, 2005. PMID: 15671348.
- Willis CE, Slovis TL. The ALARA Concept in Radiographic Dose Reduction. Radiol Technol 76(2):150-2, 2004. PMID: 15587617.
- Willis CE. Introduction. Pediatr Radiol 34(Suppl 3):S165-S166, 2004.
- Willis CE. Strategies for dose reduction in ordinary radiographic examinations using CR and DR. Pediatr Radiol 34 Suppl 3:S196-200, 2004. PMID: 15558261.
- Willis CE, Slovis TL. The ALARA concept in pediatric CR and DR: dose reduction in pediatric radiographic exams--a white paper conference executive summary. Pediatr Radiol 34 Suppl 3:S162-164, 2004. PMID: 15558256.
- Willis CE. Discussion. Pediatr Radiol 34(Suppl 3):S234-241, 2004.
- Willis CE, Thompson SK, Shepard SJ. Artifacts and Misadventures in Digital Radiography. Applied Radiology 33(1):11-20, 2004.
- Samei E, Seibert JA, Willis CE, Flynn MJ, Mah E, Junck KL. Performance evaluation of computed radiography systems. Med Phys 28(3):361-71, 2001. PMID: 11318318.
- Roehrig H, Willis CE, Damento MA. Characterization of monochrome CRT display systems in the field. J Digit Imaging 12(4):152-65, 1999. PMID: 10587910.
- Cawthon MA, Goeringer F, Telepak RJ, Burton BS, Pupa SH, Willis CE, Hansen MF. Preliminary assessment of computed tomography and satellite teleradiology from Operation Desert Storm. Invest Radiol 26(10):854-7, 1991. PMID: 1960024.
- Willis CE, Bencomo JA. Logistic representation of the sensitometric response of screen-film systems: empirical validation. Med Phys 17(4):676-80, 1990. PMID: 2215413.
- Willis CE. Diagnostic Radiologic Imaging for the Health Maintenance Facility. Research and Technology Annual Report 1987. NASA Technical Memorandum #100 463:22, 1988.
- Willis CE, Willis DG, Holmquist GP. An equation for DNA electrophoretic mobility in agarose gels. Appl Theor Electrophor 1(1):11-8, 1988. PMID: 3154955.
- Willis CE, Schultz JR. Spacecraft water system disinfection technology: past, present, and future needs. 17th Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems. Session 11ES10A, Paper #871487, 9 pages Paper #871487:9 pages, 1987.
- Bencomo, JA, LeDuc T, McGraw FJ, Fallone BG, Willis CE. Logit analysis of screen/film modulation transfer function data. J Imag Sci 30:270-273, 1986.
- Willis CE, Holmquist GP. Quantitative measurements of fluorescently-stained DNA in gels from photographic images. Electrophoresis 6:259-267, 1985.
- Long BH, Willis CE, Prestayko AW, Crooke ST. Effect of anthracycline analogues on the appearance of newly synthesized total RNA and messenger RNA in the cytoplasm of erythroleukemia cells. Mol Pharmacol 22(1):152-7, 1982. PMID: 6956804.
- Willis, CE. Digital radiography: CR versus DR? Sometimes recognizing the distinction in technologies makes a difference. Applied Radiology 37(1):25-28, 2008.
- Willis CE. What's New in Quality Control for Computed Radiography?. Imaging Economics:21-54, 2004.
- Willis CE. CR, DR dose strategies address pediatric imaging. Diagnostic Imaging:221-225, 2003.
- Willis CE. Ten Fallacies about CR. Imaging Economics 15(12):26-29, 2002.
- Willis CE. Optimizing CR and DR: Good CR/DR Practice. Advance for Imaging and Oncology Administrators 12(11):133-135, 2002.
- Willis CE. Computed radiography: a higher dose?. Pediatr Radiol 32:745-750, 2002. PMID: 12244467.
- Willis CE. Filmless practice needs much more diligent QA. SCAR Conference Reporter suppl. to Diagnostic Imaging 23(9):9, 2001.
- Willis CE, Thompson SK. Strategic Moves: Medical Physics in the Digital Domain. Advance for Administrators in Radiology and Radiation Oncology:30-35, 2001.
- Willis CE. Quality Control of Computed Radiography Systems. Quality Assurance for the Third Millennium. American Association of Physicists in Medicine, Southwest Regional Chapter Spring Meeting and Conference. Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, 2000.
- Willis CE, Parker BR. In pediatrics, CR may become the ideal detector. Diagn Imaging (San Franc) 21(11):175-183, 1999. PMID: 10724837.
- Seibert JA, Bogucki TM, Ciona T, Huda W, Karellas A, Mercier JR, Samei E, Shepard SJ, Stewart BK, Strauss KJ, Suleiman OH, Tucker D, Uzenoff RA, Weiser JC, Willis CE. Acceptance Testing and Quality Control of Photostimulable Storage Phosphor Imaging Systems:Report of AAPM Task Group #10. American Association of Physicists in Medicine AAPM Report 93, 2006.
- Thompson, SK, Willis CE, Polman R, Homann KI Validation of a Self-Calibrating Active-Matrix Liquid Crystal Display System. J Digit Imaging 16 (Suppl 1):19-21, 2003.
- Thompson SK, Willis CE, Krugh KT, Jeff Shepard S, McEnery KW Implementing the DICOM Grayscale Standard Display Function for mixed hard- and soft-copy operations. J Digit Imaging 15 Suppl 1:27-32, 2002. PMID: 12105694.
- Willis CE, McCluggage CW, Orand MR, Parker BR Puncture-proof picture archiving and communication system. J Digit Imaging 14(2) Suppl 1:66-71, 2001. PMID: 11442126.
- Willis CE, Parker BR, Orand M, Wagner ML Challenges for pediatric radiology using computed radiography. J Digit Imaging 11(3) Suppl 1(3 Suppl 1):156-8, 1998. PMID: 9735457.
- Cook, JF, Breitweser J, Goldsmith B, Hansen MF, Willis CE, Suitor C Deployable filmless teleradiology through a DICOM3 interface: a transparent reality?. 13th Conference on Computer Applications in Radiology. Denver, Colorado:19-24, 1996.
- Willis, CE, Mercier J, Patel M Modification of conventional quality assurance procedures to accommodate computed radiography. 13th Conference on Computer Applications in Radiology. Denver, Colorado:275-281, 1996.
- Lyche, DK, Willis CE, Williamson MP, Suitor CT, Romlein JR Quality control of a teleradiology system. SPIE Medical Imaging 1996: Image Display Newport Beach, CA 2707:636-646, 1996.
- Willis, CE, Leckie RG, Brink L, Goeringer F An integrated telemedicine workstation for intercontinental grand rounds. SPIE Medical Imaging 1995: Image Display. San Diego, CA, 2431:374-381, 1995.
- Willis, CE, Leckie RG, Carter J, Williamson MP, Scotti SD, Norton G Objective measures of quality assurance in a computed radiography-based radiology department. SPIE Medical Imaging San Diego, CA, Physics of Medical Imaging 2432:588-599, 1995.
- Willis, CE, Weiser JC, Leckie RG, Romlein J, Norton G Optimization and quality control of computed radiography. SPIE Medical Imaging VI: PACS Design and Evaluation, Newport Beach, CA 2164:178-185, 1994.
- Leckie, RG, DeTreville RE, Lyche D, Norton G, Goeringer F, Willis CE, Cawthon M, Smith D, Hansen M The ideal teleradiology configuration from a physician's perspective. SPIE Medical Imaging VI: PACS Design and Evaluation 1899:359-364, 1993.
- Leckie, RG, Smith CS, Smith DV, Donnelly J, Cawthon M, Weiser J, Willis CE, Goeringer F MDIS: A large PACS and teleradiology project. Computer Assisted Radiology. Proceedings of the International Symposium. Berlin: Springer - Verlag:4-14, 1993.
- Weiser, JC, Leckie RG, Freedman MT, Smith DV, Cawthon MA, Romlein JR, Willis CE, Goeringer F Significance of the Fuji computed radiography algorithms on hardcopy images. SPIE Medical Imaging VI: PACS Design and Evaluation 1897:199-203, 1993.
- Willis, CE, DeTreville R, Leckie RG, Norton G, Lyche D, Goeringer F, Monville J, Engebretson KA, Walgren H Evolution of teleradiology in the defense medical establishment. SPIE Medical Imaging VI: PACS Design and Evaluation 1899:366-375, 1993.
- Mun, SK, Bryant GV, Young H, Sheehy M, Willis C, Goeringer F Command-wide teleradiology for U.S. Armed Forces in Korea. SPIE Medical Imaging VI:PACS Design and Evaluation 1654:81-88, 1992.
- Willis CE, Schomer D Distributed acquisition of digital images in a rural setting. PACS in Medicine. NATO ASI Series F74:427-429, 1991.
- Bencomo, JA, Marsh LM, Morgan TJ, Cole A, Willis CE Digital radiographic imaging systems shift variance as a source of error in contrast detail measurements. Applications of Instrumentation in Medicine XIII. Medical Image Production, Processing, and Display. Proceedings of the Society of Photographic Engineers 535:22-31, 1985.
- Willis, CE, Oro JA, Gray HB, Jr Photographic quantification of fluorescently-stained DNA in gels through analog modification of spectrophotometer output. Biomedical Engineering II: 2nd Southern Bio-Engineering Conference:381-384, 1983.
- Nagy, PG, Willis CE, Hendee WR. Moderator. Point/Counterpoint: "There is no legitimate role for an applications service provider in radiology". Med Phys 29(4):638-640, 2002.
- Willis CE, Don S. Advances in Chest Radiography Techniques: CR, DR, Tomosynthesis, and Radiation Dose Optimization. In: Pediatric Chest Imaging. 3rd. Springer: Berlin Heidelberg, 1-12, 2014.
- Willis, Charles E. Quality Control in Digital Radiography. Chapter 10. In: Digital Radiography: An Introduction. Thomson Delmar Learning: Clifton Park, NY, 217-247, 2010.
- Willis CE. Quality Assurance for Medical Imaging. Chapter 13. In: Practical Imaging Informatics. Springer: New York, 197-211, 2009.
- Willis, Charles E. Computed Radiography/Digital Radiography: Pediatric, RSNA Categorical Course in Diagnostic Radiological Physics: From Invisible to Visible-The Science and Practice of X-ray Imaging and Radiation Dose Opt. In: Radiological Society of North America, Inc. RSNA: Oak Brook, IL, 73-83, 2006.
- Willis CE. Quality Assurance: An Overview of Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the Digital Imaging Department. In: Quality Assurance, Meeting the Challenge in the Digital Medical Enterprise. Society for Computer Applications in Radiology: Great Falls, VA, 1-8, 2002.
- Willis CE. Computed radiographic imaging and artifacts, Chapter 7. In: Filmless Radiology. Springer-Verlag: New York, 137-154, 1999.
- Willis CE. Computed Radiography, QA/QC. In: Practical Digital Imaging and PACS, Medical Physics Monograph No. 28. Medical Physics Publishing: Madison, 157-175, 1999.
- Chang, PJ, Channin, DS, Przybylowicz J, Roehrig H, and Willis, CE. The Lightbox, Part 1. Special Course in Computers in Radiology. In: The Lightbox, Part 1. Radiological Society of North America: Chicago, IL, 61-71, 1997.
- Willis CE. CR Quality Improvement. Categorical Course in Physics: Technology Update and Quality Improvement of Diagnostic X-Ray Imaging Equipment. In: Categorical Course, 153-160, 1996.
Letters to the Editor
- Willis, CE. Re: "Optimizing the Use of Computer Radiography in Pediatric Chest Imaging.". J Digit Imaging 22: 99-100, 2009.
- Willis, CE. Re: "Optimization of Dose and Image Quality for Computed Radiography and Digital Radiography.". J Digit Imaging 20(1): 1-3, 2007.