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X. Ronald Zhu, PhD, FAAPM

Present Title & Affiliation

Primary Appointment

Professor, Department of Radiation Physics - Patient Care, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX
Physics Director, Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Physics, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX

Education & Training

Degree-Granting Education

1989 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, PHD, Chemical Physics
1984 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, MS, Physics
1982 Nanjing University, Nanjing, China, BS, Physics

Postgraduate Training

1994-1996 Medical Physics Residency, Radiation Oncology Physics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO
1993-1994 Postdoctoral Fellowship, Radiation Oncology Physics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO
1990-1992 Postdoctoral Fellowship, Chemical Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT

Board Certifications

1997 American Board of Medical Physics (ABMP)


Academic Appointments

Associate Professor, Department of Radiation Physics - Patient Care, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 9/2003-8/2008
Assistant Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 7/2000-8/2003

Administrative Appointments/Responsibilities

Deputy Chief of Clinical Physics, Proton, Department of Radiation Physics - Patient Care, Division of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 7/2006-2/2015
Acting Chief of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 6/2002-8/2003

Other Appointments/Responsibilities

Senior Medical Physicist, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, 4/1998-6/2000
Senior Medical Physicist, St. Luke Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI, 11/1996-4/1998

Institutional Committee Activities

Vice Chair, Clinical Education for Non-Physician Committee (CENPC), 9/2010-8/2011
Member, Clinical Education for Non-Physician Committee (CENPC), 9/2005-4/2015

Honors and Awards

2010 Fellow, American Association of Physicists in Medicine
2007 Outstanding Achievement Award, Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
1996 RSNA Roentgen Resident/Fellow Research Award
1982 CUSPEA Fellow

Professional Memberships

American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Member, 1993-present
American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Member, 2000-present

Selected Publications

Peer-Reviewed Original Research Articles

1. Zhu XR, Wang CH. Homodyne Photon-correlation Spectroscopy of a supercooled liquid: 1,3,5-tri-a-Naphthyle Benzene. J Chem Phys 84:6086-6090, 1986.
2. Wang CH Zhu XR, Shen JC. Angular and Temperature Dependence of Depolarized and Polarized Rayleigh-Brillouin Spectra of a Supercooled Liquid: o-terphenyl. Mol Phys 62:749-764, 1987.
3. Zhu XR, Harris JM. Influence of Photoisomerization on Saturated Absorption of 3,3'-Diethyloxadicarbocyanine Iodide (DODCI) Studied by Diffraction from Laser-induced Anharmonic Thermal Gratings. Chem Phys 124:321-332, 1988.
4. Zhu XR, Harris JM. Nonlinear Absorption By All-trans-b-carotene Studied by Diffraction from Laser-induced Anharmonic Thermal Gratings. J Phys Chem 93:75-83, 1989.
5. Zhu XR, Harris JM. Diffraction from Anharmonic Gaussian Volume Gratings Calculated by Two-dimensional Fourier Transform to Evaluate Optical Nonlinear Absorption. J Opt Soc Am B7:796-802, 1990.
6. Zhu XR, Harris JM. Studies of Excited-state Absorption and photoisomerization of Cyanine Dye Molecules by Laser-induced Anharmonic Thermal Gratings. Chem Phys 142:301-309, 1990.
7. Zhu XR, Harris JM. Photodissociation and Nongeminate Recombination of Bromine in Liquids Initiated by 532 nm Radiation. Chem Phys Lett 186:183-188, 1991.
8. Zhu XR, Harris JM. Photothermal Grating Spectroscopy Study of Nongeminate Atom Recombination of Photodissociated Iodine in Liquids. Chem Phys 157:409-422, 1991.
9. Zhu XR, McGraw DJ, Harris JM. Holographic Spectroscopy: Diffraction from Laser-induced Gratings. Anal Chem 64:710A-719A, 1992.
10. Zhu XR, Harris JM. Formation, Relaxation, and Quenching of Br2 Excited States in CCl4. J Phys Chem 97:6650-6655, 1993.
11. Cambron RT, Zhu XR, Harris JM. Evaluating Rates and Yields of Second-order, Photoinitiated Reactions under Conditions of Gaussian-profile Excitation. J Phys Chem 98:8726-8733, 1994.
12. Zulli SL, Kovaleski JM, Zhu XR, Harris JM, Wirth MJ. Lateral Diffusion of an Adsorbate at a Chromatographic C18/Water Interface. Anal Chem 66:66, 1994.
13. Zhu XR, Low DA, Harms WB, Purdy JA. A convolution-adapted ratio-TAR algorithm for 3D photon beam treatment planning. Med Phys 22(8):1315-27, 8/1995. PMID: 7476719.
14. Low DA, Zhu XR, Harms WB, Purdy JA. Measurement of a photon penumbra-generating kernel for a convolution-adapted ratio-TAR algorithm for 3D treatment planning. Med Phys 22(9):1395-403, 9/1995. PMID: 8531864.
15. Low DA, Zhu XR, Purdy JA, Soderstrom S. The influence of angular misalignment on fixed-portal intensity modulated radiation therapy. Med Phys 24:1123-39, 1997. PMID: 9243475.
16. Tinger A, Michalski JM, Cheng A, Low DA, Zhu XR, Bosch WR, Purdy JA, Perez CA. A critical evaluation of the planning target volume for 3-D conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 42:213-221, 1998.
17. Hansen RL, Zhu XR, Harris JM. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy with Patterned Photoexcitation for Measuring Solution Diffusion Coefficients of Robust Fluorophores. Anal Chem 70:1281-1287, 1998.
18. Zhu XR, Klein EE, Low DA. Geometric and dosimetric analysis of multileaf collimation conformity. Radiother Oncol 47:63-8, 1998. PMID: 9632294.
19. Klein EE, Gerber R, Zhu XR, Oehmke F, Purdy JA. Multiple machine implementation of enhanced dynamic wedge. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 40:977-85, 1998. PMID: 9531384.
20. Zhu XR, Gillin MT, Jursinic PA, Lopez F, Grimm DF, Rownd JJ. Comparison of dosimetric characteristics of Siemens Virtual and physical wedges. Med Phys 27(10):2267-2277, 10/2000. PMID: 11099193.
21. Zhu XR. Entrance dose measurements for in-vivo dosimetry: comparison of correction factors for two types of commercial silicon diode detectors. J App Clin Med Phys 1:100-107, 2000.
22. Miften M, Zhu XR, Takahashi K, Lopez F, Gillin MT. Implementation and verification of virtual wedge in a three-dimensional radiotherapy planning system. Med Phys 27(7):1635-43, 7/2000. PMID: 10947267.
23. Zhu XR, Allen JJ, Shi J, Simon WE. Total scatter factors and tissue maximum ratios for small radiosurgery fields: comparison of diode detectors, a parallel-plate ion chamber, and radiographic film. Med Phys 27(3):472-477, 3/2000. PMID: 10757599.
24. Zhu XR, Gillin MT, Ehlers K, Lopez F, Grimm DF, Rownd JJ, Steinberg TH. Dependence of Virtual wedge factor on dose calibration and monitor units. Med Phys 28(2):174-177, 2/2001. PMID: 11243340.
25. Yoo S, Grimm DF, Zhu XR, Jursinic PA, Lopez F, Rownd JJ, Gillin MT. Clinical Implementation of AAPM TG61 new protocol for kilovoltage x-ray radiation therapy beams. Med Phys 29:2269-2273, 2002.
26. Zhu XR, Yoo S, Jursinic PA, Grimm DF, Lopez F, Rownd JJ, Gillin MT. Characteristics of sensitometric curves of radiographic films. Med Phys 30(5):912-919, 5/2003. PMID: 12773000.
27. Zhu XR Schultz CS, Gillin MT. Planning quality and delivery efficiency of sMLC delivered IMRT treatment of oropharyngeal cancers evaluated by RTOG H-0022 dosimetric criteria. J Appl Clin Med Phys 5(4):80-95, 2004. e-Pub 10/1/2004. PMID: 15738923.
28. Zhu XR, Gillin MT. Derivation of the distribution of extrafocal radiation for head scatter factor calculation. Med Phys 32:351-9, 2005. PMID: 15789579.
29. York ED, Alecu R, Ding L, Fontenla DP, Kalend AM, Kaurin DG, Masterson-McGary ME, Saini AS, Shi J, Simon WE, Zhu TC, Zhu XR. Diode In-vivo dosimetry for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy. AAPM Report No. 87, 2005.
30. Zhu XR, Prado K, Liu HH, Guerrero TM, Jeter M, Liao Z, Rice D, Forster K, Stevens CW. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for mesothelioma: impact of multileaf collimator leaf width and pencil beam size on planning quality and delivery efficiency. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 62(5):1525-34, 2005. PMID: 16029815.
31. Stevens CW, Wong PF, Rice D, Jeter M, Forster K, Zhu XR. Treatment planning system evaluation for mesothelioma IMRT. Lung Cancer 49 Suppl 1:S75-81, 2005. PMID: 15950806.
32. Wang D, Schultz CJ, Jursinic PA, Bialkowski M, Zhu XR, Brown WD, Rand SD, Michel MA, Campbell BH, Wong S, Li XA, Wilson JF. Initial experience of FDG-PET/CT guided IMRT of head-and-neck carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 65(1):143-51, 5/2006. PMID: 16618577.
33. Zhu XR, Kang Y, Gillin MT. Measurement of in-air output ratios for a linear accelerator with and without the flattening filter. Med Phys 33:3723-3733, 2006.
34. Zhang L, Garden AS, Lo J, Ang KK, Ahamad A, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Chambers MS, Zhu XR, Mohan R, Dong L. Multiple regions-of-interest analysis of setup uncertainties for head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64(5):1559-69, 2006. PMID: 16580505.
35. Kang Y, Zhang X, Chang JY, Wang H, Wei X, Liao Z, Komaki R, Cox JD, Balter PA, Liu H, Zhu XR, Mohan R, Dong L. 4D Proton treatment planning strategy for mobile lung tumors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67(3):906-14, 2007. PMID: 17293240.
36. Zhang X, Dong L, Lee A, Cox J, Kuban DA, Zhu XR, Wang X, Li Y, Newhauser WD, Gillin M, Mohan R. Effect of anatomic motion on proton therapy dose distributions in prostate cancer treatment. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67:620-629, 2007.
37. Lu J, Guerrero TM, Munro P, Jeung A, Chi PM, Balter P, Zhu XR, Mohan R and Pan T. Four dimensional cone beam CT with adaptive gantry rotation and adaptive data sampling. Med Phys 34(9):3520-3529, 2007. PMID: 17926955.
38. Zhang Y, Zhang L, Zhu XR, Lee AK, Chambers M, Dong L. Reducing metal artifacts in cone-beam CT images by preprocessing projection data. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 67(3):924-32, 2007. e-Pub 12/8/2006. PMID: 17161556.
39. Li H, Zhu XR, Zhang L, Dong L, Tung S, Ahamad A, Chao KS, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Schwartz DL, Mohan R, Garden AS. Comparison of 2D radiographic images and 3D cone beam computed tomography for positioning head-and-neck radiotherapy patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 71(3):916-25, 7/1/2008. e-Pub 4/18/2008. PMID: 18395358.
40. Titt U, Sahoo N, Ding X, Zheng Y, Newhauser WD, Zhu XR, Polf JC, Gillin MT, Mohan R. Assessment of the accuracy of an MCNPX-based Monte Carlo simulation model for predicting three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions. Phys Med Biol 53(16):4455-4470, 8/21/2008. e-Pub 7/31/2008. PMCID: PMC4131262.
41. Li H, Mohan R, Zhu XR. Scatter kernel estimation with an edge-spread function method for cone-beam computed tomography imaging. Phys Med Biol 53(23):6729-48, 12/7/2008. e-Pub 11/7/2008. PMID: 18997269.
42. Zhu XR, Gillin MT. Effect of output variation with dose rate on the Virtual Wedge factor. J Appl Clin Med Phys 9(1):54-58, 2008. e-Pub 1/28/2008. PMID: 18449167.
43. Yang M, Virshup G, Mohan R, Shaw CC, Zhu XR, Dong L. Improving accuracy of electron density measurement in the presence of metallic implants using orthovoltage computed tomography. Med Phys 35(5):1932-1941, 5/2008. PMID: 18561669.
44. Li Y, Zhang X, Lii M, Sahoo N, Zhu XR, Gillin MT, Mohan R. Incorporating partial shining effects in proton pencil beam dose calculation. Phys Med Biol 53:605-616, 2008.
45. Sahoo N, Zhu XR, Arjomandy B, Ciangaru G, Lii M, Amos R, Wu R, Gillin MT. A procedure for calculation of monitor units for passively scattered proton radiotherapy beams. Med Phys 35(11):5088-97, 11/2008. PMID: 19070243.
46. Arjomandy B, Sahoo N, Zhu XR, Zullo JR, Wu RY, Zhu M, Ding X, Martin C, Ciangaru G, Gillin MT. An overview of the comprehensive proton therapy machine quality assurance procedures implemented at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center-Houston. Med Phys 36(6):2269-2282, 6/2009. PMID: 19610316.
47. Li H, Mawlawi OS, Zhu XR, and Zheng Y. Blind Deblurring Reconstruction Technique with Applications in PET Imaging. Int J Biomed Imag 2009(78157):1-6, 2009.
48. Giebeler A, Fontenot J, Balter P, Ciangaru G, Zhu XR, Newhauser W. Dose perturbations from by implanted helical gold markers in proton therapy of prostate cancer. J App Clin Med Phys 10(1):63-70, 2009.
49. Smith A, Gillin M, Bues M, Zhu XR, Suzuki K, Mohan R, Woo S, Lee A, Komaki R, Cox J, Hiramoto K, Akiyama H, Ishida T, Sasaki T, Matsuda K. The M. D. Anderson proton therapy system. Med Phys 36(9):4068-4083, 9/2009. PMID: 19810479.
50. Ciangaru G, Sahoo N, Zhu XR, Sawakuchi GO, Gillin MT. Computation of doses for large-angle Coulomb scattering of proton pencil beams. Phys Med Biol 54(24):7285–7300, 12/21/2009. e-Pub 11/20/2009. PMID: 19926912.
51. Zullo JR, Kudchadker RJ, Zhu XR, Sahoo N, Gillin MT. LIF TLD-100 as a dosimeter in high energy proton beam therapy-Can it yield accurate results? Med Dosim 35(1):63-6, 2010. e-Pub 4/14/2009. PMID: 19931017.
52. Gillin MT, Sahoo N, Bues M, Ciangaru G, Sawakuchi G, Poenisch F, Arjomandy B, Martin C, Titt U, Suzuki K, Smith AR, Zhu XR. Commissioning of the discrete spot scanning proton beam delivery system at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Proton Therapy Center, Houston. Med Phys 37(1):154-163, 1/2010. PMID: 20175477.
53. Sawakuchi GO, Titt U, Mirkovic D, Ciangaru G, Zhu XR, Sahoo N, Gillin MT, Mohan R. Monte Carlo investigation of the low-dose envelope from scanned proton pencil beams. Phys Med Biol 55(3):711-21, 2/7/2010. e-Pub 1/13/2010. PMID: 20071752.
54. Yang M, Virshup G, Clayton J, Zhu XR, Mohan R, Dong L. Theoretical variance analysis of single- and dual-energy computed tomography methods for calculating proton stopping power ratios of biological tissues. Phys Med Biol 55(5):1343-1362, 3/7/2010. e-Pub 2/10/2010. PMID: 20145291.
55. Zhu XR, Sahoo N, Zhang X, Robertson D, Li H, Choi S, Lee AK, Gillin MT. Intensity modulated proton therapy treatment planning using single field optimization: the impact of monitor unit constraints on plan quality. Med Phys 37(3):1210-1219, 3/2010. PMCID: PMC2837732.
56. Wang X, Sahoo N, Zhu RX, Zullo JR, Gillin MT. Measurement of neutron dose equivalent and its dependence on beam configuration for a passive scattering proton delivery system. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 76(5):1563-70, 4/2010. e-Pub 1/2010. PMID: 20097484.
57. Sawakuchi GO, Zhu XR, Poenisch F, Suzuki K, Ciangaru G, Titt U, Anand A, Mohan R, Gillin MT, Sahoo N. Experimental characterization of the low-dose envelope of spot scanning proton beams. Phys Med Biol 55(12):3467-3478, 6/21/2010. e-Pub 5/28/2010. PMID: 20508318.
58. Sawakuchi GO, Mirkovic D, Perles LA, Sahoo N, Zhu XR, Ciangaru G, Suzuki K, Gillin MT, Mohan R, Titt U. An MCNPX Monte Carlo model of a discrete spot scanning proton beam therapy nozzle. Med Phys 37(9):4960-4970, 9/2010. PMCID: PMC2941520.
59. Meyer J, Bluett J, Amos R, Levy L, Choi S, Nguyen QN, Zhu XR, Gillin M, Lee A. Spot scanning proton beam therapy for prostate cancer: treatment planning technique and analysis of consequences of rotational and translational alignment errors. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 78(2):428-34, 10/1/2010. e-Pub 1/25/2010. PMID: 20100641.
60. Li H, Zhang L, Dong L, Sahoo N, Gillin MT, Zhu XR. A CT-based software tool for evaluating compensator quality in passively scattered proton therapy. Phys Med Biol 55(22):6759-6771, 11/21/2010. e-Pub 10/28/2010. PMID: 21030745.
61. Arjomandy B, Sahoo N, Ciangaru G, Zhu XR , Song XR , Gillin MT. Verification of patient-specific dose distributions in proton radiotherapy using a two-dimensional commercial ion chamber array. Med Phys 37:5831-5837, 2010.
62. Cheung J, Kudchadker RJ, Zhu XR, Lee AK, Newhauser WD. Dose perturbations and image artifacts caused by carbon-coated ceramic and stainless steel fiducials used in proton therapy for prostate cancer. Phys Med Biol 55(23):7135-47, 12/2010. e-Pub 11/2010. PMID: 21076190.
63. Siochi RA, Balter P, Bloch CD, Santanam L, Blodgett K, Curran BH, Engelsman M, Feng W, Mechalakos J, Pavord D, Simon T, Sutlieff S, Zhu XR. A rapid communication from the AAPM Task Group 201: Recommendations for the QA of external beam radiotherapy data transfer. AAPM TG 201: Quality assurance of external beam radiotherapy data transfer. J Appl Clin Med Phys 22(1):170-181, 2011. e-Pub 12/4/2010. PMID: 21330992.
64. Suzuki K, Gillin MT, Sahoo N, Zhu XR, Lee AK, Lippy D. Quantitative analysis of beam delivery parameters and treatment process time for proton beam therapy. Med Phys 38(7):4329-4337, 7/2011. PMID: 21859034.
65. Li H, Lee AK, Johnson JL, Zhu RX, Kudchadker RJ. Characterization of dose impact on IMRT and VMAT from couch attenuation for two Varian couches. J Appl Clin Med Phys 12(3):3471, 2011. e-Pub 3/2011. PMID: 21844859.
66. Huang JY, Newhauser WD, Zhu XR, Lee AK, Kudchadker RJ. Investigation of dose perturbations and the radiographic visibility of potential fiducials for proton radiation therapy of the prostate. Phys Med Biol 56(16):5287-302, 8/2011. e-Pub 7/2011. PMCID: PMC3171138.
67. Zhu XR, Poenisch F, Song X, Johnson JL, Ciangaru G, Taylor MB, Lii M, Martin C, Arjomandy B, Lee AK, Choi S, Nguyen QN, Gillin MT, Sahoo N. Patient-specific quality assurance for prostate cancer patients receiving spot scanning proton therapy using single-field uniform dose. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81(2):552-559, 10/1/2011. e-Pub 2/6/2011. PMID: 21300457.
68. Zhang X, Liu W, Li Y, Li X, Quan M, Mohan R, Anand A, Sahoo N, Gillin M, Zhu XR. Parameterization of multiple Bragg curves for scanning proton beams using simultaneous fitting of multiple curves. Phys Med Biol 56(24):7725-7735, 12/21/2011. e-Pub 11/16/2011. PMID: 22085829.
69. Welsh J, Gomez D, Palmer MB, Riley BA, Mayankkumar AV, Komaki R, Dong L, Zhu XR, Likhacheva A, Liao Z, Hofstetter WL, Ajani JA, Cox JD. Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Further Reduces Normal-Tissue Exposure During Definitive Therapy for Locally Advanced Distal Esophageal Tumors: A Dosimetric Study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 81(5):1336-1342, 12/1/2011. e-Pub 4/4/2011. PMCID: PMC4086056.
70. Li H, Dong L, Zhang L, Yang JN, Gillin MT, Zhu XR. Toward a better understanding of the gamma index: Investigation of parameters with a surface-based distance method. Med Phys 38(12):6730-41, 12/2011. PMCID: PMC3298565.
71. Park PC, Zhu XR, Lee AK, Sahoo N, Melancon AD, Zhang L, Dong L. A Beam-specific planning target volume (PTV) design for proton therapy to account for setup and range uncertainties. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 82(2):e329-e336, 2/1/2012. e-Pub 6/22/2011. PMCID: PMC3183263.
72. Anand A, Sahoo N, Zhu XR, Sawakuchi GO, Poenisch F, Amos RA, Ciangaru G, Titt U, Suzuki K, Mohan R, Gillin MT. A procedure to determine the planar integral spot dose values of proton pencil beam spots. Med Phys 39(2):891-900, 2/2012. PMCID: PMC3277608.
73. Li Y, Zhu XR, Sahoo N, Anand A, Zhang X. Beyond Gaussians: a study of single spot modeling for scanning proton dose calculation. Phys Med Biol 57:983-997, 2012.
74. Park PC, Cheung J, Zhu XR, Sahoo N, Court L, Dong L. Fast range-corrected proton dose approximation method using prior dose distribution. Phys Med Biol 57(11):3555-3569, 6/7/2012. e-Pub 5/16/2012. PMCID: PMC3388743.
75. Yang M, Zhu XR, Park PC, Titt U, Mohan R, Virshup G, Clayton JE, Dong L. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration. Phys Med Biol 57(13):4095-4115, 7/7/2012. e-Pub 6/7/2012. PMCID: PMC3396587.
76. Amsbaugh MJ, Grosshans DR, McAleer MF, Zhu R, Wages C, Crawford CN, Palmer M, De Gracia B, Woo S, Mahajan A. Proton Therapy for Spinal Ependymomas: Planning, Acute Toxicities and Preliminary Outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 83(5):1419-1424, 8/1/2012. e-Pub 1/13/2012. PMID: 22245209.
77. Cao W, Lim GJ, Lee A, Li Y, Liu W, Ronald Zhu X, Zhang X. Uncertainty incorporated beam angle optimization for IMPT treatment planning. Med Phys 39(8):5248-5256, 8/2012. PMCID: PMC3422361.
78. Amsbaugh MJ, Zhu XR, Palmer M, Poenisch F, McAleer MF, Mahajan A, Grosshans DR. Spot scanning proton therapy for craniopharyngioma. Pract Radiat Oncol 2(4):314-318, Oct-Dec, 10/2012. e-Pub 2/10/2012. PMID: 24674170.
79. Li H, Li Y, Zhang X, Li X, Liu W, Gillin MT, Zhu XR. Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors. Med Phys 39(12):7359-7367, 12/2012. PMCID: PMC3523466.
80. Li H, Sahoo N, Poenisch F, Suzuki K, Li Y, Li X, Zhang X, Lee AK, Gillin MT, Zhu XR. Use of treatment log files in spot scanning proton therapy as part of patient-specific quality assurance. Med Phys 40(2):021703-1-11, 2/2013. PMCID: PMC3555925.
81. Liu W, Frank SJ, Li X, Li Y, Zhu XR, and Mohan R. PTV-based IMPT optimization incorporating planning risk volumes vs robust optimization. Med Phys 40:021709-1-8, 2013.
82. Pugh TJ, Choi S, Nguyen QN, Gillin MT, Zhu XR, Palmer BP, and Lee AK. Proton Beam Therapy for the Treatment of Prostate Cancer. Practical Radiat Oncol 3:e87-e94, 2013.
83. Zhu XR, Poenisch F, Lii M, Sawakuchi GO, Titt U, Bues M, Song X, Zhang X, Li Y, Ciangaru G, Li H, Taylor MB, Suzuki K, Mohan R, Gillin MT, Sahoo N. Commissioning dose computation models for spot scanning proton beams in water for a commercially available treatment planning system. Med Phys 40(4):041723-1-15, 4/2013. PMCID: PMC3631269.
84. Liu W, Frank SJ, Li X, Li Y, Park PC, Dong L, Ronald Zhu X, Mohan R. Effectiveness of Robust Optimization in Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Planning for Head and Neck Cancers. Med Phys 40(5):051711, 5/2013. PMCID: PMC3651255.
85. Cheung JP, Park PC, Court LE, Ronald Zhu X, Kudchadker RJ, Frank SJ, Dong L. A novel dose-based positioning method for CT image-guided proton therapy. Med Phys 40(5):051714, 5/2013. PMCID: PMC3651206.
86. Cao W, Lim G, Li X, Li Y, Zhu XR, Zhang X. Incorporating deliverable monitor unit constraints into spot intensity optimization in intensity modulated proton therapy treatment planning. Phys Med Biol 58(15):5113-25, 8/7/2013. e-Pub 7/9/2013. PMCID: PMC3947922.
87. Quan EM, Liu W, Wu R, Li Y, Frank SJ, Zhang X, Zhu XR, Mohan R. Preliminary evaluation of multifield and single-field optimization for the treatment planning of spot-scanning proton therapy of head and neck cancer. Med Phys 40(8):081709, 8/2013. PMCID: PMC3732307.
88. Park PC, Cheung JP, Zhu XR, Lee AK, Sahoo N, Tucker SL, Liu W, Li H, Mohan R, Court LE, Dong L. Statistical assessment of proton treatment plans under setup and range uncertainties. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 86(5):1007-13, 8/1/2013. e-Pub 5/18/2013. PMCID: PMC3755369.
89. Dhanesar S, Sahoo N, Kerr M, Taylor MB, Summers P, Zhu XR, Poenisch F, Gillin M. Quality assurance of proton beams using a multi-layer ionization chamber system. Med Phys 40(9):092102-1-9, 9/2013. PMID: 24007171.
90. Pugh TJ, Amos RA, John Baptiste S, Choi S, Nhu Nguyen Q, Ronald Zhu X, Palmer MB, Lee AK. Multifield optimization intensity-modulated proton therapy (MFO-IMPT) for prostate cancer: Robustness analysis through simulation of rotational and translational alignment errors. Med Dosim Jun 6.(3):pii: S0958-3947(13) 00043-5, 2013. e-Pub 6/6/2013. PMCID: PMC3966198.
91. Mackin D, Li Y, Taylor MB, Kerr M, Holmes C, Sahoo N, Poenisch F, Li H, Lii J, Amos R, Wu R, Suzuki K, Gillin MT, Zhu XR, Zhang X. Improving spot-scanning proton therapy patient specific quality assurance with HPlusQA, a second-check dose calculation engine. Med Phys 40(12):121708-1-10, 12/2013. PMID: 24320494.
92. Li H, Park P, Liu W, Matney J, Liao Z, Balter P, Li Y, Zhang X, Li X, Zhu XR. Patient-specific Quantification of Respiratory Motion-Induced Dose Uncertainty for Step-and-Shoot IMRT of Lung Cancer. Med Phys 40(12):121712-1-8, 12/2013. PMCID: PMC3843761.
93. Pugh TJ, Munsell MF, Choi S, Nguyen QN, Mathai B, Zhu XR, Sahoo N, Gillin M, Johnson JL, Amos RA, Dong L, Mahmood U, Kuban DA, Frank SJ, Hoffman KE, McGuire SE, Lee AK. Quality of Life and Toxicity from Passively Scattered and Spot-Scanning Proton Beam Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 87(5)(5):946-53, 12/1/2013. e-Pub 10/15/2013. PMCID: PMC4086944.
94. Kandula S, Zhu X, Garden AS, Gillin M, Rosenthal DI, Ang KK, Mohan R, Amin MV, Garcia JA, Wu R, Sahoo N, Frank SJ. Spot-scanning beam proton therapy vs intensity-modulated radiation therapy for ipsilateral head and neck malignancies: A treatment planning comparison. Med Dosim 38(4)(4):390-4, 2013. e-Pub 8/2/2013. PMID: 23916884.
95. Dinh J, Stoker J, Georges RH, Sahoo N, Zhu XR, Rath S, Mahajan A, Grosshans DR. Comparison of proton therapy techniques for treatment of the whole brain as a component of craniospinal radiation. Radiat Oncol 8:289, 2013. e-Pub 12/17/2013. PMCID: PMC3880207.
96. Li Y, Kardar L, Li X, Li H, Cao W, Chang JY, Liao L, Zhu RX, Sahoo N, Gillin M, Liao Z, Komaki R, Cox JD, Lim G, Zhang X. On the interplay effects with proton scanning beams in stage III lung cancer. Med Phys 41(2):021721-1-7, 2/2014. PMCID: PMC4108709.
97. Shao Y, Sun X, Lou K, Zhu XR, Mirkovic D, Poenisch F, Grosshans D. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: An initial phantom study. Phys Med Biol 59(13):3373–3388, 7/7/2014. e-Pub 5/30/2014. PMID: 24874943.
98. Li H, Liu W, Park P, Matney J, Liao Z, Chang J, Zhang X, Li Y, Zhu RX. Evaluation of the systematic error in using 3D dose calculation in scanning beam proton therapy for lung cancer. J Appl Clin Med Phys 15(5):4810, 2014. e-Pub 9/8/2014. PMCID: PMC4161985.
99. Frank SJ, Cox JD, Gillin M, Mohan R, Garden AS, Rosenthal DI, Gunn GB, Weber RS, Kies MS, Lewin JS, Munsell MF, Palmer MB, Sahoo N, Zhang X, Liu W, Zhu XR. Multifield optimization intensity modulated proton therapy for head and neck tumors: a translation to practice. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 89(4):846-53, 7/2014. e-Pub 5/2014. PMCID: PMC4171724.
100. Zhu XR, Poenisch F, Li H, Zhang X, Sahoo N, Wu RY, Li X, Lee AK, Chang EL, Choi S, Pugh T, Frank SJ, Gillin MT, Mahajan A, Grosshans DR. A Single-Field Integrated Boost Treatment Planning Technique for Spot Scanning Proton Therapy. Radiat Oncol 9(1):202, 2014. e-Pub 9/11/2014. PMCID: PMC4262206.
101. Stoker JB, Grant J, Zhu XR, Pidikiti R, Mahajan A, Grosshans DR. Intensity modulated proton therapy for craniospinal irradiation: organ at risk exposure and a low-gradient junctioning technique. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 90(3):637-644, 11/1/2014. e-Pub 9/3/2014. PMID: 25194667.
102. Grosshans DR, Zhu XR, Melancon A, Allen PK, Poenisch F, Palmer M, McAleer MF, McGovern SL, Gillin M, DeMonte F, Chang EL, Brown PD, Mahajan A. Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Malignancies of the Base of Skull: Treatment Planning, Acute Toxicities, and Preliminary Clinical Outcomes. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 90(3):540-546, 11/1/2014. e-Pub 9/26/2014. PMID: 25304948.
103. Cao W, Lim G, Liao L, Li Y, Jiang S, Li X, Li H, Suzuki K, Zhu XR, Gomez D, Zhang X. Proton energy optimization and reduction for intensity-modulated proton therapy. Phys Med Biol 59(21):6341-6354, 11/7/2014. e-Pub 10/8/2014. PMID: 25295881.
104. Chang JY, Li H, Zhu XR, Liao Z, Zhao L, Liu A, Li Y, Sahoo N, Poenisch F, Gomez DR, Wu R, Gillin M, Zhang X. Clinical implementation of intensity-modulated proton therapy for thoracic malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 90(4):809-18, 11/15/2014. e-Pub 9/24/2014. PMCID: PMC4252731.
105. Haque W, Wages C, Ronald Zhu X, Choi S, Pugh TJ, Frank SJ, Lee A, Mahmood U. Proton Therapy for Seminoma: Case Report Describing the Technique, Efficacy and Advantages of Proton Based Therapy for Seminoma. Pract Radiat Oncol. e-Pub 10/8/2014. PMID: 25413401.
106. Liu W, Liao Z, Schild SE, Liu Z, Li H, Li Y, Park PC, Li X, Stoker J, Shen J, Keole S, Anand A, Fatyga M, Dong L, Sahoo N, Vora S, Wong W, Zhu XR, Bues M, Mohan R. Impact of Respiratory Motion on Worst-Case-Scenario Optimized Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Lung Cancers. Pract Radiat Oncol. e-Pub 10/11/2014. PMID: 25413400.
107. Liu W, Mohan R, Park P, Liu Z, Li H, Li X, Li Y, Wu R, Sahoo N, Dong L, Zhu XR, Grosshans DR. Dosimetric Benefits of Robust Treatment Planning for Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for Base-of-Skull Cancers. Pract Radiat Oncol 4(6):384-391, 2014. e-Pub 1/14/2014. PMCID: PMC4238033.
108. Kardar L, Li Y, Li X, Li H, Cao W, Chang JY, Liao L, Zhu RX, Sahoo N, Gillin M, Liao Z, Komaki R, Cox JD, Lim G, Zhang X. Evaluation and mitigation of the interplay effects of intensity modulated proton therapy for lung cancer in a clinical setting. Pract Radiat Oncol 4(6):e259-68, 2014. e-Pub 8/2014. PMID: 25407877.
109. Mackin D, Zhu XR, Sahoo N, Poenisch F, Li H, Kerr M, Holmes C, Lii, M-F Wu R, Suzuki K, Gillin MT, Li Y, Grosshans DG, Frank S, and Zhang X. Spot-Scanning Proton Therapy Patient-Specific Quality Assurance: Results from 309 Treatment Plans. Int J Particle Therapy 1:711-720, 2014.
110. Tabibian AA, Powers A, Dolormente K, Oommen S, Tiwari A, Palmer M, Zhu XR, Li H, Sahoo N, Wisdom P, Velasco K, Erhart K, Stanley H, Nguyen BN. Is there a clinical benefit with a smooth compensator design compared with a plunged compensator design for passive scattered protons? Med Dosim 40(1):37-43, 2015. e-Pub 9/26/2014. PMID: 25263491.
111. Pan HY, Jiang S, Sutton J, Liao Z, Chance WW, Frank SJ, Zhu XR, Li H, Fontanilla HP, Zhang X, Gomez DR. Early experience with intensity modulated proton therapy for lung-intact mesothelioma: A case series. Pract Radiat Oncol. e-Pub 1/2015. PMID: 25572666.
112. Park PC, Schreibmann E, Roper J, Elder E, Crocker I, Fox T, Zhu XR, Dong L, and Dhabaan A. MRI-Based CT Metal Artifact Correction Method for Improving Proton Range Calculation Accuracy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 91:849-856, 2015.
113. Li H, Zhang X, Park P, Liu W, Chang J, Liao Z, Frank S, Li Y, Poenisch F, Mohan R, Gillin M, Zhu R. Robust optimization in intensity-modulated proton therapy to account for anatomy changes in lung cancer patients. Radiother Oncol 114:367-372, 2015. PMID: 25708992.
114. Cao W, Lim G, Li Y, Zhu XR, and Zhang X. Improved beam angle arrangement in intensity modulated proton therapy treatment planning for localized prostate cancer. Cancers 7:574-584, 2015.
115. Zhu XR, Li Y, Mackin D, Li H, Poenisch F, Lee AK, Mahajan A, Frank SJ, Gillin MT, Sahoo N, Zhang X. Towards effective and efficient patient-specific quality assurance for spot-scanning proton therapy. Cancers (Basel) 7(2):631-647, 2015. e-Pub 4/2015. PMID: 25867000.
116. Guan F, Bronk L, Titt U, Lin SH, Mirkovic D, Kerr MD, Zhu XR, Dinh J, Sobieski M, CStephan C, Peeler C, Taleei R, Mohan R, and Grosshans DR. Spatial mapping of the biologic effectiveness of scanned particle beams: towards biologically optimized particle therapy. Scientific Reports. In Press.

Invited Articles

1. Zhu XR, Das RK, Orton CG. POINT/COUNTERPOINT - Most residency programs for radiation oncology physicists do not reflect the heightened importance of medical imaging. Med Phys 37(5):1939-1941, 5/2010. PMID: 20527527.
2. Sapareto S, Zhu XR, Orton CG. Point/counterpoint. Medical physics residents should be placed using a matching program. Med Phys 41(6):060601, 6/2014. PMID: 24877794.

Book Chapters

1. Gillin MT, Zhu XR, and Sahoo N. Considerations for an Effective Quality Assurance Program for Proton Therapy. In: Ion Beam Therapy Fundamentals, Technology, Clinical Applications. Ed(s) Ute Linz. Springer: Heidelberg, 471-485, 2012.
2. Dong L, Cheung J and Zhu XR. Image-guided Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy. In: Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy, 1. Ed(s) C-M Ma and T Lomax. CRC Press;: Boca Raton, FL, 127-150, 2012.

Grant & Contract Support

Title: Road to PET Image-Based On-Line Proton Beam Range Measurement
Funding Source: NIH/NCI
Role: Co-Investigator
Principal Investigator: Yiping Shao
Duration: 10/1/2014 - 9/30/2016
Title: Minimizing dose uncertainty for spot scanning proton beam of moving tumors by optimization of the spot delivery sequence
Funding Source: Varian Medical Systems
Role: Co-Investigator
Principal Investigator: Heng Li
Duration: 6/3/2014 - 6/2/2016
Title: Predict and Adapt for Dose Variation in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy from Setup and Anatomical Change
Funding Source: Varian Medical System
Role: Co-Investigator
Principal Investigator: Heng Li. PhD
Duration: 6/15/2013 - 6/15/2014
Title: In-Situ PET Imaging for Adaptive Proton Therapy
Funding Source: CPRIT
Role: Collaborator
Principal Investigator: Yiping Shao, Ph.D.
Duration: 1/1/2012 - 12/31/2014
Title: Evaluation of Enhanced Spot Beam Model for IMPT and Production of Library of Reference Measured Dose Distribution Data for Evaluation of Future Enhancements of IMPT Treatment Planning System
Funding Source: Varian Medical Systems
Role: Co-project leader
Principal Investigator: Radhe Mohan, PhD, and James Cox, MD
Duration: 2008 - 2010
Title: Improve Cone beam imaging quality for image-guided radiation therapy
Funding Source: Varian Medical Systems
Role: Project Leader
Principal Investigator: Radhe Mohan, PhD and James Cox, MD
Duration: 2006 - 2008

Last updated: 4/16/2015